SQL injection (SQLi) attacks attempt to inject SQL syntax into web requests, which may bypass authentication and allow attackers to access and/or modify data attached to a web application. Which of the following SQLi types leverages a database server’s ability to make DNS requests to pass data to an attacker?
Option 1 : Union-based SQLi
Option 2 : In-band SQLi
Option 3 : Out-of-band SQLi
Option 4 : Time-based blind SQLi
1. Union-based SQLi
Union based SQL injection allows an attacker to extract information from the database by extending the results returned by the first query. The Union operator can only be used if the original/new queries have an equivalent structure (number and data sort of columns). SQL Injection (SQLi) is a type of an injection attack that makes it possible to execute malicious SQL statements. These statements control a database server behind a web application. Attackers can use SQL Injection vulnerabilities to bypass application security measures. They can go around authentication and authorization of a web page or web application and retrieve the content of the entire SQL database. They can also use SQL Injection to add, modify, and delete records in the database.
An SQL Injection vulnerability may affect any website or web application that uses an SQL database such as MySQL, Oracle, SQL Server, or others. Criminals may use it to gain unauthorized access to your sensitive data: customer information, personal data, trade secrets, intellectual property, and more. SQL Injection attacks are one of the oldest, most prevalent, and most dangerous web application vulnerabilities.
2. In-band SQLi
In-band SQL injection occurs when an attacker is in a position to use an equivalent channel to both launch the attack and gather results. the 2 commonest sorts of in-band SQL injection are Error-based SQLi and Union-based SQLi. SQL injection, also known as SQLI, is a common attack vector that uses malicious SQL code for backend database manipulation to access information that was not intended to be displayed. This information may include any number of items, including sensitive company data, user lists or private customer details.
The impact SQL injection can have on a business is far-reaching. A successful attack may result in the unauthorized viewing of user lists, the deletion of entire tables and, in certain cases, the attacker gaining administrative rights to a database, all of which are highly detrimental to a business.
When calculating the potential cost of an SQLi, it’s important to consider the loss of customer trust should personal information such as phone numbers, addresses, and credit card details be stolen.
While this vector can be used to attack any SQL database, websites are the most frequent targets.
3. Out-of-band SQLi
Out-of-band SQL injection occurs when an attacker is unable to use an equivalent channel to launch the attack and gather results. … Out-of-band SQLi techniques would believe the database server’s ability to form DNS or HTTP requests to deliver data to an attacker. Out-of-band SQL injection is not very common, mostly because it depends on features being enabled on the database server being used by the web application. Out-of-band SQL injection occurs when an attacker is unable to use the same channel to launch the attack and gather results.
Out-of-band techniques, offer an attacker an alternative to inferential time-based techniques, especially if the server responses are not very stable (making an inferential time-based attack unreliable).
Out-of-band SQLi techniques would rely on the database server’s ability to make DNS or HTTP requests to deliver data to an attacker. Such is the case with Microsoft SQL Server’s xp_dirtree command, which can be used to make DNS requests to a server an attacker controls; as well as Oracle Database’s UTL_HTTP package, which can be used to send HTTP requests from SQL and PL/SQL to a server an attacker controls.
4. Time-based blind SQLi
Time-based SQL Injection is an inferential SQL Injection technique that relies on sending an SQL query to the database which forces the database to attend for a specified amount of your time (in seconds) before responding. Time-based SQL injection is a type of inferential injection or blind injection attack. Inferential injection attack is a type of attack in which no data is transferred between the attacker and the database and the attacker won’t be able to get results as easily as in an in-band injection attack. This is why it is also called a blind injection attack. An attacker can reconstruct and make a new database structure inside the database.
In a time-based attack, an attacker sends an SQL command to the server with code to force a delay in the execution of the queries.
The response time indicates whether the result of the query is true or false. Depending on the response, the attacker will execute another query. Because the attacker has to enumerate each character by character, this is usually a slow intrusion technique, especially for large databases.
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